Ancient Towers

Two ancient towers are known in the area, visited and described by Lucient Lerat. One is in Tsitomi and the other in South Giona on the dirt road to the bauxite mines from Vounihora to Karoutes at the location of Trypi or Loutsa Vounichora.

In our excursions in the mountains of Galaxidi, we discovered the ruins of seven other towers that we will describe in the chronological order of discovery.


We discovered the first tower with Adonis Kyros who wanted to explore the Tsoukos hill. The rocky top of this elevation on its eastern side forms a steep cliff that ends in a transverse pass that looked like an ancient path and on the north side of it were the foundations of a square tower with rectangular stones carved from stones of the area. All around was a plateau used until the recent past by herds.

Coordinates 38022΄50.52΄΄Ν     22021΄24.39΄΄Ε   height. 287 m.


The location of the second tower was suspected by Sheila Karatza, examining with binoculars the slope of Papalakos hill, looking north towards Tritaia from the road to Vounihora. We found the dirt road that leads to the area and the only part of the hill that is arable. It has planted olive trees and fencing. We found an ancient water tank, still in use with a carved in rock feeding channel and ancient tiles around it. We found the ruins of the tower nearby.  Square tower about 8 X 8 meters on a rock with very good construction. Part of the rock had been carved out for the foundation. The tower is located on a cliff overlooking the only arable area of ​​the hill.

Coordinates 38026΄19.06΄΄Ν     22020΄55.77΄΄Ε   height. 500 m.


We discovered the third tower on the Trapeza hill in   a narrow plateau with animal dung and old dry stones. The ruins of the tower were hidden in a thicket of holly trees and not well preserved There were many ancient tiles around.

Coordinates 38022΄15.94΄΄Ν     22021΄17.59΄΄Ε   height. 366 m.


The  fourth tower was found in the Marmara area, on the plateau west of the Xirotiri-Paliopournara hill on the dirt road that starts from Pendaoria, bypasses the ancient Acropolis of Panagia of Pentaoria and goes towards Galaxidi. In this area there are many traces of agricultural activities of the past and of ancient habitation, since there was also an ancient water tank and old tiles. The ruins of the tower were found hidden in holly trees. Many of the rectangular building stones had fallen from the height of the tower to the slope underneath.

Coordinates 38022΄31.17΄΄Ν     22019΄39.38΄΄Ε   height. 531 m.


The fifth tower was found behind and under the top of the Prophet Elias hill to the southwest. The plateau northwest of Prophet Elias hill where the village of Vounihora and lower down the village of Pendaoria forms smooth hills with wide shallow valleys. In the spring it is covered in a vast carpet of wildflowers and in the summer of long grass. There are traces of ancient paths, many corrals and ancient water reservoirs.  This tower was found next to a water tank and in holly oak busses. It was well structured with rectangular carved stones. Oversees a low foothills and large arable basin and is most easily accessed by the dirt road leading to the summit.

Coordinates 38025΄45.69΄΄Ν    22019΄41.69΄΄Ε   height. 787 m.


The sixth tower was found on the northern edge of Elafokarto hill between the old and the new road to Vounihora.  The tower oversees a large valley with almond and olive trees. The base of the tower was formed by large stones, each about 0.6m. height. In the surrounding fields there are plenty of broken roof tiles, fine pottery and we also found a weaving weight.

Coordinates 38rd  25′ 31.56”Ν 22 21′ 09.66” W height  284 m.


The seventh tower was found on the road to Pentaoria. After the intersection towards Vounihora the road forms a series of hairpins. From one such bent begins a small dirt road apparently built by beekeepers that is now used for depositing garbage. From its end, looking towards the sea, you can see the ruins of the tower made of rectangular stones, but very worn. The floor plan was approximately 5X5 meters square.   One side of the tower was built on a rocky cliff that ends in a stream.  Αρκετά κεραμίδια στέγης αλλά και λεπτή κεραμική υπήρχαν γύρω-τριγύρω. Several roof tiles and fine pottery were around. Below the tower there was a small plateau with a wonderful view towards the bay of Galaxidi.

Coordinates 38rd 24′ 40.05” N 22 21’08.56”W height 242.3 m.


It seems that there was a fairly dense network of ancient towers around Galaxidi. Surely many more can be found. All are situated on small arable lands, next to a water tank or a well or a stream. Most have a wide visual horizon. Almost all have construction that requires specialized crews to quarry, chisel, build, transport and supply materials such as timber, tiles. These towers seem to indicate a central administration that was probably the Aetolian Commonwealth. Apart from the wider defensive significance they seem to protect small or larger agricultural stlements.